Skip to main content

Table 1 Summary of the methylation rate of multiple genes studied in advanced gallbladder cancer

From: DNA promoter methylation as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in gallbladder cancer

Gene name Full name Function Frequency of methylation % (n) Origin of specimen Method Reference
CDH1 Cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin (epithelial) Tissue invasion (cell-cell adhesion) 11 (1/9) Japan MSP Tozawa et al. 2004 [43]
   38 (19/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   65 (13/20) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2006 [39]
   60 (13/20) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2008 [46]
   65 (15/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
   41 (9/22) Japan Nested MSP Koga et al. 2005 [47]
FHIT Fragile histidine triad gene Regulation of DNA replication and apoptosis 30 (6/20) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2006 [39]
   66 (33/50) Chile MSP Riquelme et al. 2007 [40]
   32 (8/25) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2008 [46]
   57 (13/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
APC Adenomatous polyposis coli Cell migration, adhesion and apoptosis 26 (14/54) Chile, USA Nested MSP House et al. 2003 [28]
   30 (15/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   40 (8/20) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2006 [39]
   32 (8/25) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2008 [46]
   35 (8/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
hMLH1 Human homologs of the MutL gene of bacteria Mismatch repair 13 (7/54) Chile, USA Nested MSP House et al. 2003 [28]
   0 (0/9) Japan MSP Tozawa et al. 2004 [43]
   5 (1/20) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2006 [39]
   4 (2/50) Chile MSP Riquelme et al. 2007 [40]
   4 (1/25) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2008 [46]
   17 (4/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
p16 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A Cell cycle regulation 56 (30/54) Chile, USA Nested MSP House et al. 2003 [28]
   60 (3/5) Germany MSP Klump et al. 2003 [48]
   22 (2/9) Japan MSP Tozawa et al. 2004 [43]
   24 (9/38) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2004 [49]
   24 (12/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   15 (8/54) China MSP Ueki et al. 2004 [31]
   20 (4/20) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2006 [39]
   73 (37/51) Japan MSP Tadokoro et al. 2007 [50]
   20 (5/25) Chile MSP Roa et al. 2008 [46]
   26 (6/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
p15 Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B Cell cycle regulation 44 (22/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   22 (5/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
DAPK1 Death-associated protein kinase 1 Serine-threonine kinase 22 (2/9) Japan MSP Tozawa et al. 2004 [43]
   8 (4/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   61 (14/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
DLC1 Deleted in liver cancer 1 GTPase-activating protein 39 (9/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
RASSF1 RAS association domain family protein 1A Signal transduction 11 (1/9) Japan MSP Tozawa et al. 2004 [43]
   0 (0/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   8 (4/50) Chile MSP Riquelme et al. 2007 [40]
   36 (8/22) Korea MSP Kee et al. 2007 [42]
   17 (4/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
MGMT O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase Methyltransferase 13 (7/54) Chile, USA Nested MSP House et al. 2003 [28]
   30 (7/23) Chile MSP Garcia et al. 2009 [29]
CDH13 Cadherin 13, H-cadherin (heart) Tissue invasion (cell-cell adhesion) 44 (22/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   70 (16/23) Chile MSP García et al. 2009 [29]
TIMP3 Metallopeptidase inhibitor 3 Degradation of the extracellular matrix 0 (0/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   39 (9/23) Chile MSP Garcia et al. 2009 [29]
GSTP1 Glutathione S-transferase pi 1 Conjugation of hydrophobic and electrophilic compounds 13 (3/23) Chile MSP Garcia et al. 2009 [29]
RARβ2 Retinoic acid receptor, beta Encodes retinoic acid receptor beta (mediates cellular signaling) 4 (2/54) Chile, USA Nested MSP House et al. 2003 [28]
   14 (7/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
   44 (10/23) Chile MSP Garcia et al. 2009 [29]
REPRIMO TP53 dependent G2 arrest mediator candidate Cell cycle regulation (p53 mediator) 62 (31/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2005 [51]
SHP1 Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6 Regulate cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle 80 (40/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
3-OST-2 Heparan sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 2 Osulfotransferase 72 (36/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
RUNX3 Runt-related transcription factor 3 TGF-beta signal pathway 22 (2/9) Japan MSP Tozawa et al. 2004 [43]
   32 (16/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
RIZ1 PR domain containing 2, with ZNF domain Histone/protein methyltransferase 26 (13/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
HPP1 Transmembrane protein with EGF-like and two follistatin-like domains 2 TGF-beta signal pathway 20 (10/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
P73 Tumor protein p73 Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle regulation 28 (15/54) Chile, USA Nested MSP House et al. 2003 [28]
   14 (7/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
SOCS-1 Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 JAK-STAT pathway 12 (6/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
DCR2 Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10d TNF-receptor superfamily 6 (3/50) Chile MSP Takahashi et al. 2004 [32]
SEMA3B Sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), short basic domain, secreted, (semaphorin) 3B Induction of apoptosis 92 (46/50) Chile MSP Riquelme et al. 2007 [40]
DUTT1 Human homolog of Drosophila Roundabout (ROBO1) Cell migration and metastasis 22 (11/50) Chile MSP Riquelme et al. 2007 [40]
BLU Zinc finger, MYND-type containing 10 Cell cycle regulation 26 (13/50) Chile MSP Riquelme et al. 2007 [40]
UCHL1 Ubiquitin carboxyl - terminal esterase L1 Peptidase C12 family 27 (6/22) Korea MSP Lee et al. 2006 [52]
p14 Ribonuclease P/MRP 14 kDa subunit Cell cycle regulation 40 (2/5) Germany MSP Klump et al. 2003 [48]
  1. JAK-STAT: janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription; MSP: methylation specific PCR; TGF: transforming growth factor; TNF: tumor necrosis factor.