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Table 1 Tumourigenic hypoxia related epigenetic changes and potential therapeutic strategies and targets.

From: Suffocating cancer: hypoxia-associated epimutations as targets for cancer therapy

  Modification observed in hypoxia related tumourigenesis Therapeutic potential
DNA methylation Global DNA hypomethylation • DNMT inhibition in haematological malignancies
• Re-expression of specific tumour suppressor genes (eg. VHL) through decitabine therapy
Histone modification • Hypoxic regulation of histone demethylase activity
• Up-regulation of HDAC1 and histone methyltransferase
• HDAC inhibitors disrupt HIF through altered transcription and degradation
• Combination of HDAC inhibiton with mTOR inhibition has additive effect in vitro
miRNAs mi-RNAs associated with diagnosis and prognosis eg mi-210 • Selected hypoxia related
mi-RNA inhibition through
- Anti-miRNA oligonucleotides
- Antagomirs
• Indirect regulation of miRNA through HIF inhibitors