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Table 2 Example of interactions between oncogenic viral proteins and host epigenetic machinery

From: Epigenetic mechanisms in virus-induced tumorigenesis

Virus Viral protein Epigenetic interaction
HPV E7 Binds DNMT1 and stimulates DNA methyltransferase activity
Binds HDACs and Mi2 subunit of Nurd ATP-dependent remodeling complex
Induces KMD6A and KDM6B histone demethylase expression
Induces expression of histone methyltransferase EZH2
E6 Interacts with p300/CBP and inhibits HAT activity
EBV LMP1 Activates DNMTs 1, 3a, and 3b
EBNA2 Interacts with p300 and activates transcription
EBNA3c Binds HDACs
KSHV LANA Activates DNMT3a
Interacts with SUV39H1, MeCP2, and mSin3
vIRFs Binds p300/CBP and inhibits HAT activity
HBV HBx Activates DNMT1
Regulates the expression of DNMT3a and DNMT3b
Interacts with p300/CBP
Interacts with HDAC
Adenovirus E1A Binds DNMT1 and stimulates DNA methyltransferase activity
Binds p300/CBP, TRRAP/GCN5, and PCAF HAT complexes
Binds to p400 and promotes the formation of a Myc–p400 complex at Myc-target gene promoters
E4ORF3 Stimulates de novo H3K9me3 heterochromatin formation specifically at p53 target promoters
HTLV-1 Tax Interacts with p300/CBP to repress transcription
Binds BRG1 subunit of chromatin-remodeling complexes
  1. vIRF viral homologue of interferon regulatory factor